Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the production and consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS).
- It was adopted in Montreal on September 16, 1987, and entered force on January 1, 1989.
- Main Aim – To reduce the abundance of ODS in the atmosphere and thereby protect the earth’s fragile Ozone Layer.
- It has undergone eight revisions:
- In 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi), 1992 (Copenhagen ), 1993 (Bangkok), 1995 (Vienna), 1997(Montreal), 1999 (Beijing) and 2016 (Kigali) .
- It has been ratified by 197 parties.
- All member parties have responsibilities related to phasing out various ODS, controlling ODS export, and import trade.
In 1974, F. S Rowland and Mario Molina gave theory that explain the breakdown of Ozone in Stratosphere. It states that when CFCs get accumulate in stratosphere , they get breakdown into chlorine free radical due to effect of UV radiation and further chlorine radical breakdown Ozone. And this led to Ozone Depletion.
Ozone Depleting Substances include – CFCs, HCFCs, Halons, Methyl bromide, Carbon tetrachloride etc.
- 28th meeting of parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete Ozone Layer held in Kigali, Rwanda amended the 1987 M.P to phase out Hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs).
- HFCs are used in refrigerators, conditioners, aerosols, etc globally. It directly does not cause ozone depletion but contributes up to 7-19% per year to global CO2 emissions which led to Global Warming.
Success Achieved Till Date:-
- With the implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the ozone layer will be recovered by 2050. Without this, ozone depletion would have increased 10 times by 2050 compared to the current level.
- It is estimated that M.P is saving about 2 million people each year from skin cancer.
- From 1990 to 2010, the Treaty help to reduce greenhouse gases emission by the equivalent of 135 gigatons of CO2.
- Without the M.P, the amount of heat trapped due to ODS would be about twice as high as present levels.
Montreal Protocol is considered to be one of the most successful environmental agreements of all time.