Forest Conservation Act 1980
The Forest (Conservation) Act of 1980 (FCA, 1980) is an act by the Parliament of India which ensures the conservation of forest and its resources. It was enacted by the Parliament of India in order to control the ongoing deforestation of the forests of India. It came into force on October 25, 1980, containing five sections.
Features of the Forest Conservation Act 1980
- The Act restricts the state government and other authorities to take decisions first without permission from the central government.
- The Forest Conservation Act gives complete authority to the Central government to carry out the objectives of the act.
- The Act levies penalties in case of violations of the provisions of FCA.
- The Forest Conservation Act will have an advisory committee which will help the Central government with regard to forest conservation.
Objectives of the Forest Conservation Act 1980
- Protect the forest along with its flora, fauna, and other diverse ecological components while preserving the integrity and territory of the forests.
- Arrest the loss of forest biodiversity
- Prevent forest lands from being converted into agricultural, grazing, or for any other commercial purposes and intentions.
Biological Diversity Act of 2002
The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 was passed by the parliament of India to protect biodiversity and promote sustainable management of biological resources with the local communities.The Act was enacted to meet the requirements demonstrated by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to which India is a party.
Features of the Biological Diversity Act 2002
Since India is one of the most biologically diverse nations in the world, this act is a necessity to protect its biological heritage.
The salient features of the Biological Diversity Act are as follows.
- Regulation of access to biological resources of the country
- Conservation and sustainability of biological diversity
- Protecting the knowledge of local communities regarding biodiversity
- Secure sharing of benefits with local people as conservers of biological resources and holders of knowledge and information relating to the use of biological resource
- Protection and rehabilitation of threatened species
- Involvement of institutions of state governments in the broad scheme of the implementations of the Biological Diversity Act through the establishment of dedicated committees.
National Biodiversity Authority
The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was established in 2003 by the Central Government to implement India’s Biological Diversity Act (2002).It is a Statutory body that performs facilitative, regulatory and advisory functions for the Government of India on the issue of Conservation and sustainable use of biological resources.The NBA has its Headquarters in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Functions of Authority:
- Advise the central Government regarding conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of its components and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of biological resources and knowledge.
- Coordinate the activities of state biodiversity.
- Provide technical help and guidance to the state biodiversity boards
- Sponsor investigation and research.
- Engage consultants for a selected period not exceeding 3 years for providing technical assistance to the Authority within the effective discharges of its functions.
- Collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data, manuals, codes, or guides regarding conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of its components, and fair and equitable sharing of advantages arising out of the employment of biological resources and pieces of information.
- Organize through mass media a comprehensive program regarding conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of components, and fair and equitable sharing of advantages arising out of the employment of biological resources and knowledge.
- Take steps to make up a database and to form an information and documentation system for biological resources.
- Give directions to state Biodiversity Boards and also to the Biodiversity Management Committees in writing for effective implementation of the act.
- Reporting to the Central Government about the functioning of the Authority and implementation of the Act.