Climate change describes a change in the average conditions — such as temperature and rainfall — in a region over a long period of time. NASA scientists have observed Earth’s surface is warming, and many of the warmest years on record have happened in the past 20 years.
- Climate, on the other hand, is more than just one or two rainy days. Climate describes the weather conditions that are expected in a region at a particular time of year.
- Is it usually rainy or usually dry? Is it typically hot or typically cold? A region’s climate is determined by observing its weather over a period of many years—generally 30 years or more.
- So, for example, one or two weeks of rainy weather wouldn’t change the fact that Phoenix typically has a dry, desert climate. Even though it’s rainy right now, we still expect Phoenix to be dry because that’s what the case is usually; climate change describes a change in the average conditions — such as temperature and rainfall — in a region over a long period of time. For example, 20,000 years ago, much of the United States was covered in glaciers.
causes of climate change
- Human-induced climate change has contributed to changing patterns of extreme weather across the globe, from longer and hotter heat waves to heavier rains.
- Extreme weather is on the rise, and the indications are that it will continue to increase, in both predictable and unpredictable ways.
- Presence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere Increases the global temperature.
- Depletion of ozone layer increases the global temperature.
effects on agriculture
- Drier soil conditions will reduce growth of crops, pasture and trees.
- It can disrupt food availability, reduce access to food, and affect food quality.
- Areas under different crops have changed substantially – for example, 75 years ago oats were the most widely grown cereal; today, wheat, barley and oilseed rape account for most of the cropped area.
effects on human communities
- Increases the risk of illness through increasing temperature, more frequent heavy rains and runoff, and the effects of storms.
- Between 2030 and 2050, climate change is expected to cause approximately 250 000 additional deaths per year, from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea and heat stress.
Global climate change refers to the average long-term of climate changes over the entire Earth. These include warming temperatures and changes in precipitation, as well as the effects of Earth’s warming, such as:
- Concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere have increased
- Rising sea levels
- Shrinking mountain glaciers
- Ice melting at a faster rate than usual in Greenland, Antarctica and the Arctic
- Changes in flower and plant blooming time
- Small climate changes disturb agriculture which leads to migration of animals and humans.
- Climate change may upset hydrological cycle which results in floods and droughts in different parts of the world.
- Global pattern of winds and oceans currents also gets disturbed by climate change
- To reduce the negative impacts of climate change and to maximize any benefits and opportunities arising from it, farmers, foresters and other land managers will need to take active adaptation measures.
- Developing new crop and grassland varieties, livestock breeds and tree genotypes and introducing new species better suited to future climate conditions and resilient to pests, diseases and other factors.