Haritima : The Environmental Society Of Hansraj College



The action of human beings that brings unwanted changes in the environment which is hazardous for all the species living in the environment can be defined as pollution. The unwanted substances that cause pollution are known as pollutants. For example:-  Pesticides, Sulphur, Carbon, etc.

Pollution harms biotic as well as abiotic components of the planet and threatens the existence of the species.

Types of pollution

  1. Air pollution
  2. Water pollution
  3. Soil pollution
  4. Noise pollution
  5. Radioactive pollution
  6. Industrial pollution

Air pollution

The contamination of air present in atmosphere due to burning of fossil fuels, emissions from factories and vehicles etc. is known as air pollution.

It is caused due to mixture of solid particles in the air. Air pollution is responsible for smog in many cities. Air pollution can cause many respiratory diseases in human beings such as asthma, lung cancer, chronic bronchitis and other lung ailments.

The sulphur and nitrogen oxides present in the air causes acid rain which harms forests, marine species and degrades statues, monuments and buildings.

Water pollution

The contamination of water bodies (lakes, rivers, ponds, streams, etc.) due to the discharge of untreated waste from industries and factories, is known as water pollution. It affects marine life to a great extent and threatens their survival. Any kind of water can be polluted irrespective of size and location.

Types of water pollution are

  • Chemical
  • Biological
  • Radiological

Water pollution can cause diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, typhoid, etc.

Soil pollution

The contamination of soil due to the presence of an excessive amount of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, etc. in them which poses a threat to human health or the ecosystem is known as soil pollution.

When plants and crops grow on polluted soil and are consumed by human beings or animals the toxic substances pass into their body and threaten their lives.

Diseases caused by soil pollution are headache, nausea, fatigue, skin rashes, eye irritation, etc.

Noise pollution

The sound over the level of 80 decibels which is prolonged over quite a long span of time and affects the normal functioning of human beings as well as animals is known as noise pollution.

Noise pollution can be caused by main three agents:-

  • Industries
  • Transport
  • Construction activities

The diseases caused by noise pollution are noise-induced hearing loss, high bp, heart disease, sleep disturbance and stress.

Radioactive pollution

The release of radioactive substances into the environment during the nuclear explosion and testing of nuclear weapons, mining of radioactive ores etc. which causes exposure to the high level of radiation is known as radioactive pollution.

Diseases caused due to radioactive pollution are skin burns, acute radiation syndrome (radiation sickness) and sometimes sudden death.

Industrial pollution

The pollution which is directly caused by industries like Pulp and paper mills, chemical fertilisers, tanneries, sugar factories, oil refineries etc. and contaminates land, water and air is known as industrial pollution.

The pollutants emitted from the industries directly affect the species of the planet.

Diseases caused by industrial pollution are asthma, COPD, lung dysfunction, skin and eye diseases, etc. and also alter the chemical and biological properties of soil, air, water.

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