Ecological Succession: Change in the Biotic component in a subsequent period is Succession due to factors like weather, geography, climate, biodiversity, etc affecting directly.
TYPES OF ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION:
- It initiates in areas that are completely devoid of any succession previously.
- It’s a new succession.
- It takes millions of years to establish themselves.
For example:- in a new place succession is initiated by weathering down of rocks by continuous perception. Thus the soil is formed and plants germination takes place and a Biotic ecology is set up.
- This succession is initiated when the primary succession is destroyed or eradicates
- It takes less time to re-establish themselves.
- The reason for the destruction of primary succession could be a forest fire, floods, earthquakes, etc.
- Human hazardous activities like gas tragedy due to poisonous leaking of smoke from factories.
- Re-establishment occurs with abundant organic matter present in the Biotic community.
For example:- Recent Amazon forest fire has left areas of land barren. The secondary Succession will take place gradually. First ashes and dead plants will be converted into organic matter. Then plants will start germinating and gradually trees will replace the barren land.
Human intervention can increase primary succession like afforestation, increase nutrition in water bodies, reducing burning fossil fuels, etc.
- The change in an ecological structure on a cyclical basis.
- Some plants that remain dormant for many years and blossom once in their lifetime.
- This can cause structural variations in an ecosystem.
CAUSES OF ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
- Biotic Cause; organisms in an ecosystem compete to thrive for existence. With the rule of evolution, some sustain the changes and dominate others can’t.
- Physiographic factors; include climate and external factors like soil erosion, soil deposition, landslide, volcanic lava.
Features of ecological succession
- As evolution occurs in nature, it causes the replacement of older species with newer species.
- The Earth’s biotic community is formed due to primary succession and hence it is inevitable as well as an irreversible process of nature.
- It is a systematic process and the changes occurred function of time.
- The vegetation is tolerant of environmental conditions.
- High species diversity, a well-drained spatial structure, and complex food chains.
- A seral community is a transitional stage of ecological succession progressing in the direction of the climax community.
- It consists of simple food chains and food webs.
- It exhibits low diversity. The individuals and the nutrients are less in number.
There are seven different types of seral community:-