Environmental Science is the study of the interaction of physical, chemical and biological components of human Biotic surroundings and there effects on physical adaptation of biological species.
To put it straight any action taken by human and its effect on the surrounding and vice versa comes under the purview of Environmental Sciences.
The subject has evolved from integrated use of many disciplines such as :
- To understand the flux of material and energy interaction.
- To construct mathematical models of environment.
- Example: To find distance between a long coconut tree and ocean tide waves in times of cyclonic disturbance in Bay of Bengal. Physicist calculate the ratios using Pythagoras theorem. Hence helping early migration of costal people.
- To understand the molecular interactions in the system.
- Example: Atoms interact among themselves and exchange energy. So, if they want to find the effect of uranium atom(nuclear energy) among the species of coastal biotic civilization(plants like coconut tree, long grass for pasture grazing).
- To describe the effects within the plant and animal kingdom and their diversity.
- To consider cryopreservation of endemic species.
- Example: Rhinoceros are recently under threat but with cryopreservation techniques like preserving sperms is beneficial in continuity of species.
4. Atmospheric Science:
- To examine the phenomenology of the Earth’s gaseous outer layer with emphasis upon interrelation to other systems.
- It comprises meteorological studies, greenhouse gas phenomena, airborne contaminants, sound propagation phenomena related to noise pollution, and even light pollution.
- Example: Delhi consider to be most polluted loses migratory birds each year due to high level of pollution. Environmental studies help us approach and implement sustainable solutions.
- To analyze the dynamics among an interrelated set of populations, or a population and some aspects of its environment.
- Example: Grass -> Deer-> Lion
- In the above food chain, if due to sudden mutations, Deer got extinct. Environmental Science will help us to show the vulnerable effect of this imbalance in ecological diversity.
6. Environmental Chemistry:
- To study the chemical alterations in the environment.
- Principal areas of study include soil contamination and water pollution.
- The topics of analysis involve chemical degradation in the environment, multiphase transport of chemicals and chemical effects upon biota.
- Example: Highly alkaline or Highly acidic soil do not promote plantation thus results into Barren Land. To deal with it, farmers use basic fertilizer with pH 9. Thus resulting in neutrality of soil.
- It includes environmental geology, environmental soil science, volcanic phenomena and evolution of the earth’s crust.
- Example: Whenever a Volcanic eruption occurs, many species dies and endemic species becomes hyper vulnerable. Hence , a geography prediction helps in undermining these hazardous effects.
8. Mathematics and Computer Science:
- It will help in environmental modelling and analysis of environment related data.
- Example: Tiger pug marks helps the forest dept. To keep an eye on tiger population. With data sciences, we can update and save the data and analyze its trend in tiger population.
- It deals with economical aspects of various components of environment. A country’s GDP include services like tourism. The more tourists arrives in a country , let’s say India, the more positive our GDP is. India is enriched with various national and wildlife parks. Tourism increase in this sector would enhance India’s’ GDP.
- It helps in framing of environment related laws, Acts, rules and their monitoring.
- Over exploitation is trending and thus suitable laws are necessary.
- Example: Environmental Protection Act 1986.
11. Social Science:
- It helps in dealing with population and health related issues.
- Example: Human population is increasing at a rapid speed and hence becoming a threat to biological diversity To tackle such issues, government appoints prominent social sciences to research and thus further the govt. Will implement laws.
NOTE: All the discipline are interconnected and with due functioning, a balance is maintained just like a balance in a food web. If one discipline fails, the entire chain suffers as like in a food chain, where one species extinction results in dissolving of food chain.